INCOME TAX INDIA
Income Tax Return is a proof that you have paid your income tax. It contains details about your annual income and the amount of tax you have paid. Every year, Indian citizens who earn taxable income have to file Income Tax Return (ITR). Filing ITR will help you in getting a refund in case you pay more tax than what you are required to pay. If you fail to file your ITR, you might have to bear penalty etc. Income tax return form ranges from ITR 1 to ITR 7 which can be choose on the basis of Nature of Income, Nature of Person.
Income from Salary
A tax that, imposed on individuals or entities which varies with respective income or profits.
What is the taxability of Conveyance allowance?
As per Section 10(14) read with Rule 2BB Conveyance allowance is exempt to the extent of amount received or amount spent, whichever is less. For e.g., If amount received is Rs. 100 and amount spent is Rs. 80, then only Rs. 20 is taxable. However, if amount actually spent is Rs. 100; then nothing is taxable.
What is an 'Assessment Year'?
It is the twelve-month period 1st April to 31st March immediately following the previous year [the financial year in which the income was earned]. In the Assessment year a person files his return for the income earned in the previous year. For example for Financial Year 2017-18 the Assessment Year is 2018-19.
Are arrears of salary taxable?
Yes. However, the benefit of spread over of income to the years to which it relates to can be availed for lower incidence of tax. This is called as relief u/s 89 of the Income-tax Act.
When relief under section 89 of the Income Tax Act is available?
Relief under section 89 is available to an individual if he has received
- Salary or family pension in arrears or in advance [Rule 21A (2)]
- Gratuity in excess of exemption under section 10(10)(ii)/(iii) [Rule 21A(3)]
- Compensation on termination of employment [Rule 21A(4)]
- Commuted pension in excess of exemption under section 10(10A)(i) [ Rule 21A(5)]In case of payment received other than above CBDT can allow relief under section 89 after examining each individual case. [Rule 21A (6)]
What is the taxability of House Rent allowance (HRA)?
Least/minimum of the following is exempt (Not taxable/deducted from total HRA received)
(a) Actual amount of HRA received
(b) Rent paid Less 10% of salary
(c) 50% of salary if house taken on rent is situated in Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi
40 % of salary if the house is taken on rent is NOT situated in Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi.
Click here to calculate tax-ability of House Rent Allowance.
Are receipts from life insurance policies on maturity along with bonus taxable?
As per section 10(10D), any amount received under a life insurance policy, including bonus is exempt from tax. However, following receipts would be subject to tax:
- Any sum received under sub-section (3) of section 80DD; or
- Any sum received under Keyman insurance policy; or
- Any sum received in respect of policies issued on or after April 1st, 2003, in respect of which the amount of premium paid on such policy in any financial year exceeds 20% (10% in respect of policy taken on or after 1st April, 2012) of the actual capital sum assured; or
- Any sum received for insurance on life of *specified person (issued on or after April 1st 2013) in respect of which the amount of premium exceeds 15% of the actual capital sum assured.* Any person who is –i) A person with disability or severe disability specified under section 80U; orii) suffering from disease or ailment as specified in the rule made under section 80DDB.Following points should be noted in this regard:
- Exemption is available only in respect of amount received from life insurance policy.
- Exemption under section 10(10D) is unconditionally available in respect of sum received for a policy which is issued on or before March 31, 2003.
- Amount received on the death of the person will continue to be exempt without any condition.
Who can file ITR 1 (SAHAJ) ?
Your tax is calculated as per the slabs mentioned below.
Income Tax Rates for taxpayers under 60 years of age in FY 2018-19, FY 2017-18 and FY 2016-17.
|Tax Slab||FY 2018-19
|Tax Slab||FY 2016-17 Tax Rate|
|Up to Rs 2,50,000||No tax||Up to Rs 2,50,000||No tax|
|Rs 2,50,000 – Rs 5,00,000||5%||Rs 2,50,000 – Rs 5,00,000||10%|
|Rs 5,00,000 – Rs 10,00,000||20%||Rs 5,00,000 – Rs 10,00,000||20%|
|Rs 10,00,000 and beyond||30%||Rs 10,00,000 and beyond||30%|
- For FY 2018-19 – Health and education cess is 4% on the sum of total income tax and surcharge.
- For FY 2017-18 and 2016-17 Higher education and secondary cess is 3% on the sum of total income tax and surcharge.
Exemption for senior citizens (age of 60 years or more but up to 80 years)
- For FY 2018-19 2017-18 and 2016-17 is Rs. 3,00,000
Exemption for super senior citizens (age of 80 years or more)
- For FY 2018-19 2017-18 is Rs. 5,00,000
Taxes for Salaried Individuals?
As soon as the filing season begins, salaried class are in a frenzy about taxes they must shell out for the said financial year. It is important to understand your tax slab and what each of your salary breakup component means. This can help you figure out how to save on taxes. If you want to understand your salary components or want to learn how you can save tax on your salary income, this guide is for you.
SECTION I – Understanding Your Payslip
1. Basic Salary
This is a fixed component in your paycheck and forms the basis of other portions of your salary, hence the name. For instance, HRA is defined as a percentage (as per the company’s discretion) of this basic salary. Your PF is deducted at 12% of your basic salary. It is usually a large portion of your total salary.
2. House Rent Allowance
Salaried individuals, who live in a rented house/apartment, can claim house rent allowance or HRA to lower tax outgo. This can be partially or completely exempt from taxes. The income tax laws have prescribed a method for computing the HRA that can be claimed as an exemption.
Also do note that, if you receive HRA and don’t live on rent your HRA shall be fully taxable.
Case Study: Malvika works at an MNC in Bangalore. Her company provides her with a house rent allowance. But she doesn’t live in a rented accommodation as she lives with her parents.
How can Malvika make use of this allowance?
Malvika can pay rent to her parents and claim the allowance provided they own the place they currently live in. All she has to do is enter into a rental agreement with her parents and transfer money to them every month. This way Malvika can make a nice gesture and give back to her parents, and two, save some taxes. But remember, Malvika’s parents will have to show the rent she paid in their income tax returns.
3. Employee Contribution to Provident Fund (PF)
Both employer and employee contribute a 10% equivalent of the employee’s basic salary every month toward employee’s pension and provident fund. An interest of about 8.5% gets accrued on it. This is a retirement benefit that companies with over 20 employees must provide as per the EPF Act, 1952.
4. Standard Deduction
Standard Deduction has been reintroduced in the 2018 budget. This deduction has replaced the conveyance allowance and medical allowance. The employee can now claim a flat Rs. 40,000 deduction from the total income, thereby reducing the tax outgo.
5. Professional Tax
Professional tax or tax on employment is a tax levied by a state, just like income tax which is levied by the central government. The maximum amount of professional tax that can be levied by a state is Rs 2,500. It is usually deducted by the employer and deposited with the state government. In your income tax return, professional tax is allowed as a deduction from your salary income.
TDS on Salary?
For a salaried employee, TDS forms a major portion of an employee’s income tax payment. Your employer will provide you with a TDS certificate called Form 16 typically around June or July showing you how much tax was deducted each month.
Your bank may also deduct tax at source when you earn interest from a fixed deposit. The bank deducts TDS at 10% on FDs usually. A 20% TDS is deducted when the bank does not have your PAN information.
- TDS exists to help government get tax throughout the year. There’s a prescribed table on how much tax deducted under what circumstances.
- Your employer cuts TDS based on the information available to him about you. So if you’ve made investments, but have not declared or if you live in a rented house, but have not shared rent receipts, your finance department will have no choice but to deduct tax based on only thing they know – your CTC.
- This is why the investment proofs deadline in your office is super important. Save yourself some headache and submit your investment proofs on time.
- Banks don’t know if you’re working in a company or if income from fixed deposits is what you solely rely on. So they deduct a standard 10% tax before they give away the interest. Now if you fall in the 20% or 30% bracket, it’s on you to pay the remainder of the income tax. That’s why sometimes you may find yourself paying some tax at the time of filing a tax return.
- Make sure banks have your PAN number. They deduct 20% tax if they don’t have your PAN in their records.
- Anyone who’s receiving an income of a specified nature say salary, interest, commission, rent, professional income etc. will have some percentage of tax withheld as prescribed by the government.
Form 16 has:
- a summary of all the tax deducted by each quarter
- all the tax benefits and allowances you’ve availed as a salaried individual
- Section 80C deductions you’ve claimed through your employer
- and your taxable income after allowances and Section 80C deductions
Who can use ITR – 4 (SUGAM)?
(b) Income from Profession as computed as per the provisions of 44ADA; or
(c) Income from salary/pension; or
(d) Income from one house property (excluding cases where loss is brought forward from previous years); or
(e) Income from other sources (excluding winnings from lottery and income from race horses).
Further, in a case where the income of another person like spouse, minor child, etc., is to be clubbed with the income of the taxpayer, this return form can be used where income to be clubbed falls in any of the above categories.
"Salary", "perquisite" and "profits in lieu of salary" defined.
“Salary”, “perquisite” and “profits in lieu of salary” defined.
(1) “salary” includes—
(ii) any annuity or pension;
(iii) any gratuity;
(iv) any fees, commissions, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in addition to any salary or wages;
(v) any advance of salary;
(va) any payment received by an employee in respect of any period of leave not availed of by him;
(vi) the annual accretion to the balance at the credit of an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent to which it is chargeable to tax under rule 6 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule;
(vii) the aggregate of all sums that are comprised in the transferred balance as referred to in sub-rule (2) of rule 11 of Part A of the Fourth Schedule of an employee participating in a recognised provident fund, to the extent to which it is chargeable to tax under sub-rule (4) thereof; and
(viii) the contribution made by the Central Government or any other employer in the previous year, to the account of an employee under a pension scheme referred to in section 80CCD;
(2) “perquisite” includes—
18(i) the value of rent-free accommodation provided to the assessee by his employer;
(ii) the value of any concession in the matter of rent respecting any accommodation provided to the assessee by his employer;
Explanation 1.—For the purposes of this sub-clause, concession in the matter of rent shall be deemed to have been provided if,—
(a) in a case where an unfurnished accommodation is provided by any employer other than the Central Government or any State Government and—
(i) the accommodation is owned by the employer, the value of the accommodation determined at the specified rate in respect of the period during which the said accommodation was occupied by the assessee during the previous year, exceeds the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee;
(ii) the accommodation is taken on lease or rent by the employer, the value of the accommodation being the actual amount of lease rental paid or payable by the employer or fifteen per cent of salary, whichever is lower, in respect of the period during which the said accommodation was occupied by the assessee during the previous year, exceeds the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee;
(b) in a case where a furnished accommodation is provided by the Central Government or any State Government, the licence fee determined by the Central Government or any State Government in respect of the accommodation in accordance with the rules framed by such Government as increased by the value of furniture and fixtures in respect of the period during which the said accommodation was occupied by the assessee during the previous year, exceeds the aggregate of the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee and any charges paid or payable for the furniture and fixtures by the assessee;
(c) in a case where a furnished accommodation is provided by an employer other than the Central Government or any State Government and—
(i) the accommodation is owned by the employer, the value of the accommodation determined under sub-clause (i) of clause (a) as increased by the value of the furniture and fixtures in respect of the period during which the said accommodation was occupied by the assessee during the previous year, exceeds the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee;
(ii) the accommodation is taken on lease or rent by the employer, the value of the accommodation determined under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) as increased by the value of the furniture and fixtures in respect of the period during which the said accommodation was occupied by the assessee during the previous year, exceeds the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee;
(d) in a case where the accommodation is provided by the employer in a hotel (except where the assessee is provided such accommodation for a period not exceeding in aggregate fifteen days on his transfer from one place to another), the value of the accommodation determined at the rate of twenty-four per cent of salary paid or payable for the previous year or the actual charges paid or payable to such hotel, whichever is lower, for the period during which such accommodation is provided, exceeds the rent recoverable from, or payable by, the assessee.
Explanation 2.—For the purposes of this sub-clause, value of furniture and fixture shall be ten per cent per annum of the cost of furniture (including television sets, radio sets, refrigerators, other household appliances, air-conditioning plant or equipment or other similar appliances or gadgets) or if such furniture is hired from a third party, the actual hire charges payable for the same as reduced by any charges paid or payable for the same by the assessee during the previous year.
Explanation 3.—For the purposes of this sub-clause, “salary” includes the pay, allowances, bonus or commission payable monthly or otherwise or any monetary payment, by whatever name called, from one or more employers, as the case may be, but does not include the following, namely:—
(a) dearness allowance or dearness pay unless it enters into the computation of superannuation or retirement benefits of the employee concerned;
(b) employer’s contribution to the provident fund account of the employee;
(c) allowances which are exempted from the payment of tax;
(d) value of the perquisites specified in this clause;
(e) any payment or expenditure specifically excluded under the proviso to this clause.
Explanation 4.—For the purposes of this sub-clause, “specified rate” shall be—
(i) fifteen per cent of salary in cities having population exceeding twenty-five lakhs as per 2001 census;
(ii) ten per cent of salary in cities having population exceeding ten lakhs but not exceeding twenty-five lakhs as per 2001 census; and
(iii) seven and one-half per cent of salary in any other place;
(iii) the value of any benefit or amenity granted or provided free of cost or at concessional rate in any of the following cases—
(a) by a company to an employee who is a director thereof;
(b) by a company to an employee being a person who has a substantial interest in the company;
(c) by any employer (including a company) to an employee to whom the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sub-clause do not apply and whose income under the head “Salaries” (whether due from, or paid or allowed by, one or more employers), exclusive of the value of all benefits or amenities not provided for by way of monetary payment, exceeds fifty thousand rupees:
Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the use of any vehicle provided by a company or an employer for journey by the assessee from his residence to his office or other place of work, or from such office or place to his residence, shall not be regarded as a benefit or amenity granted or provided to him free of cost or at concessional rate for the purposes of this sub-clause;
(iv) any sum paid by the employer in respect of any obligation which, but for such payment, would have been payable by the assessee;
(v) any sum payable by the employer, whether directly or through a fund, other than a recognised provident fund or an approved superannuation fund or a Deposit-linked Insurance Fund established under section 3G of the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1948 (46 of 1948), or, as the case may be, section 6C of the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), to effect an assurance on the life of the assessee or to effect a contract for an annuity;
(vi) the value of any specified security or sweat equity shares allotted or transferred, directly or indirectly, by the employer, or former employer, free of cost or at concessional rate to the assessee.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-clause,—
(a) “specified security” means the securities as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956) and, where employees’ stock option has been granted under any plan or scheme therefor, includes the securities offered under such plan or scheme;
(b) “sweat equity shares” means equity shares issued by a company to its employees or directors at a discount or for consideration other than cash for providing know-how or making available rights in the nature of intellectual property rights or value additions, by whatever name called;
(c) the value of any specified security or sweat equity shares shall be the fair market value of the specified security or sweat equity shares, as the case may be, on the date on which the option is exercised by the assessee as reduced by the amount actually paid by, or recovered from, the assessee in respect of such security or shares;
(d) “fair market value“ means the value determined in accordance with the method as may be prescribed;
(e) “option“ means a right but not an obligation granted to an employee to apply for the specified security or sweat equity shares at a predetermined price;
(vii) the amount of any contribution to an approved superannuation fund by the employer in respect of the assessee, to the extent it exceeds 19[one lakh and fifty thousand rupees]; and
(viii) the value of any other fringe benefit or amenity as may be prescribed20:]
Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to,—
(i) the value of any medical treatment provided to an employee or any member of his family in any hospital maintained by the employer;
(ii) any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee on his medical treatment or treatment of any member of his family—
(a) in any hospital maintained by the Government or any local authority or any other hospital approved by the Government for the purposes of medical treatment of its employees;
Provided that, in a case falling in sub-clause (b), the employee shall attach23 with his return of income a certificate from the hospital specifying the disease or ailment for which medical treatment was required and the receipt for the amount paid to the hospital;
(iii) any portion of the premium paid by an employer in relation to an employee, to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of such employee under any scheme approved by the Central Government or the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority established under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999 (41 of 1999), for the purposes of clause (ib) of sub-section (1) of section 36;
(iv) any sum paid by the employer in respect of any premium paid by the employee to effect or to keep in force an insurance on his health or the health of any member of his family under any scheme approved by the Central Government or the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority established under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999 (41 of 1999), for the purposes of section 80D;
24[(v) any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee on his medical treatment or treatment of any member of his family [other than the treatment referred to in clauses (i) and (ii)]; so, however, that such sum does not exceed fifteen thousand rupees in the previous year;]
(vi) any expenditure incurred by the employer on—
(1) medical treatment of the employee, or any member of the family of such employee, outside India;
(2) travel and stay abroad of the employee or any member of the family of such employee for medical treatment;
(3) travel and stay abroad of one attendant who accompanies the patient in connection with such treatment,
subject to the condition that—
(A) the expenditure on medical treatment and stay abroad shall be excluded from perquisite only to the extent permitted by the Reserve Bank of India; and
(B) the expenditure on travel shall be excluded from perquisite only in the case of an employee whose gross total income, as computed before including therein the said expenditure, does not exceed two lakh rupees;
(vii) any sum paid by the employer in respect of any expenditure actually incurred by the employee for any of the purposes specified in clause (vi) subject to the conditions specified in or under that clause :
Provided further that for the assessment year beginning on the 1st day of April, 2002, nothing contained in this clause shall apply to any employee whose income under the head “Salaries” (whether due from, or paid or allowed by, one or more employers) exclusive of the value of all perquisites not provided for by way of monetary payment, does not exceed one lakh rupees.
Explanation.—For the purposes of clause (2),—
(i) “hospital” includes a dispensary or a clinic or a nursing home;
(ii) “family”, in relation to an individual, shall have the same meaning as in clause (5) of section 10; and
(iii) “gross total income” shall have the same meaning as in clause (5) of section 80B;
(3) “profits in lieu of salary” includes—
(i) the amount of any compensation due to or received by an assessee from his employer or former employer at or in connection with the termination of his employment or the modification of the terms and conditions relating thereto;
(ii) any payment (other than any payment referred to in clause (10), clause (10A), clause (10B), clause (11), clause (12), clause (13) or clause (13A) of section 10), due to or received by an assessee from an employer or a former employer or from a provident or other fund, to the extent to which it does not consist of contributions by the assessee or interest on such contributions or any sum received under a Keyman insurance policy including the sum allocated by way of bonus on such policy.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-clause, the expression “Keyman insurance policy” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (10D) of section 10;
(iii) any amount due to or received, whether in lump sum or otherwise, by any assessee from any person—
(A) before his joining any employment with that person; or
(B) after cessation of his employment with that person.
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General Questions on Income Tax
Income earned from the sale of a capital asset
1) Always file your returns on time and correctly: This is the basic precaution you need to take to ensure 100% compliance with the law. Make sure you file the return correctly, and all the details while filling the returns match the details already available with the IT department.
2) Submit ITR V to Centralized Processing Centre (CPC) Bangalore: Your tax return filing is only considered complete when the ITR V reaches the CPC. Just uploading returns online is not enough; make sure you get a confirmation of its receipt from the CPC. Please follow the dos and don’ts of sending the ITR-V to the CPC correctly.